Non Violence in Medical Science - A dream or A Reality !!!
By Dr. Navin S. Shah. & Dr. Sudhir V. Shah
We all are fortunate that we have an ample quantum of cultural heritage of Jain principles. Jain principles are honored all over the world with exquisite merit. Jain philosophy believes in right of existence and survival of every living at ma. (from ekendriya to panchendriya).
Das- Vaikalik sutra, This stuf from Das- Vaikalis sutra gives us the message of developing self less-ness relationship with every living one of this universe. Every living atma has a right to live and survive. Jain philosophy believes in to live and let live. Every Single micro organism has a desire to live and Jain philosophy honours every ones desire by laying down Kartavyas of a sharavak.
What is Jinagna : The first Anuvrat states that A man should not kill any small or big animals knowingly and should avoid preventable violence. In dharm sangrah volume I ( Gujarati translated edition, by pujya manshri Bhadrankar vijayaji maharaj saheb. Vikram savant. 2012, page no. 714) Meaning :- Unharmful Biendriya etc. , tras (motile) organisms should not be, determinedly killed, or injured, without any cause, reason or purpose, is the first Anuvrat of a shrarak. It has been stated to carry out our daily life maintaining activities with jayana, so we can avoid pap karm bandh.
Is killing necessary in research of investigation and treatment : Air chief marshal Lord Dowding Fund for Human research sponsored by National Anti Vivisection Society Ltd. London , believes that Animal experimentation is still an enigma or ‘persona grata’ of the majority of traditional scientist with their myopic and incorrigible attitude. Unfortunately these scientist resort to ‘invivo’ (with animal) experiments for newer drug’s or compound’s toxicity, & safety tests, and millions of rats , mice, rabbits, hamsters, guinea pigs, cats, dogs, monkeys, birds, amphibians become their merciless victims, suffering, Acute pain, gruesome injuries, distress and horrible death in the name of advancements of science and welfare of the human being.
Dr. Zbinden of W.H.O., has warned in year 1986, that these animal experimentation are (1) un reliable as far as human being is concerned (2) costly (3) wasteful of limited research fund (4) wasteful of animals, also due to duplication by competing manufacturer. and (5) wrong animals are used. Dr. Robert sharpe has enumerated certain drags, which were passed safe in animal experiments and yet hazardous to human beings. There are many discoveries in medical science, came out without animal experimentation.
Discovery of penicillin : It Came out as an accidental finding, when Alexander flaming remained absent for 3 weeks at St. Mary Hospital London, with the culture of bacterial growth left in the Laboratory. On returning to his duties, out of his observations he came out with invention of penicillin. If this would have been experimented on guinea pigs, it would have caused fatality to guinea pigs and penicillin would have never have been used for man kind. Thus discovery of penicillin keynotes the pitfalls of animal experimentation. Invention of laughing gas, nitrous oxide, came out from debauchery action of high society party goers of Nineteenth century. Useful diagnostic tool of x-ray emerged as an accidental findings in a non violent way World war I and II, indirectly proved beneficial to people of Copenhagen of Denmark, because they were compulsorily subjected to vegetarian diet, for 3-4 yrs. During this period, death rate was lowest. Similar findings were observed in Norwayan people about reduction of death rate because of circulatory diseases by vegetarian diet. World war I and II is the strongest evidence to recommend vegetarian diet.
Area where violence is integrated in medical science :
(A) In M.T.P. : Practice of M.T.P. Should be strongly condemned.
(B) Ingredients of animal origin.
Name of the Preparation. Source. Uses.
Pancreatin Prepared from mammelian pancreas Digestive enzyme.
Pepsin. Obtained from Gastric mucosa of pigs, cattle, or ship. Proteolytic enzyme.
Phenoxy methyl penicillin Produced by microbes P. notatum Antibacterial
Plague vaccine. Killed plague Bacilli (yersinia pestis) Active immunising agent
Poliomyelitis yuccine Acttenuated strains of polio virus. Active immunising agent
Protamine suplhate Purified mixture of sulphates of basic peptides from sperm or mature testes of fish Heparin Antidote
Rabies vaccine Globulin from serum or plasma of healthy horse or other animals Passive immunizing agent.
Scorpion venom antiserum. From species of scorpion. Passive immunizing agent.
Shellac. From secretion of encrusts the bodies of scale insect laccifer lacca kerr Phrmaceutical excepients(tablet coating.)
Snakevenom antiserum. Passive immunizing agent.
Sodiumalginate Algane. Viscosity increasing agent.
Name of prepration. Source. Uses
Sodium fusidate. Microbes (fusidium coccineum) Anti bacterial.
Streptokinase Preparation of protein obtained from microbes. Strepto-coccus haemolyticus Fibrinolytic enzyme.
Streptomycin sulphate. Micro (S.griseus) Anti bacteria.
Tetanus vaccines. Active immunising agent.
Tetracycline. Micro organism. Anti bacterial.
Tobramycin. Micro org. S.tenebrarius. Anti bacterial
Tuberculin. Purified protein derivative from micro org. myco. Tabercubsis
Typhyoid vaccine Micro org. salmonella typhii. Active immunising agent
Uro kinase. Enzymes obtained from human urine. Fibrinolytic enzyme
Vaso pressin injection. From post. Lobe of pitutory gland of healthy oxen or other mammels Posterrior pitutory hormone.
Wool fat Waxy material from wool of sheep. Absorbant ointment base.
Yellow fever vaccine. Microbes. Active immunising agent.
Alpha amylase Enzyme frome fungi Aspergi this oryzae Digestive enzyme
Bacitracin Poly peptide from micro. Organism B. lichen formis Anti bacterial.
B.C.G. Vaccine Obtained from microbes. Active immunising agent.
Chloramphenicol Micro organism S.Venezulau. Anti bacterial.
Name of preparation Source. Uses.
Cholera vaccine Killed cholera vibrios. Active immunising agent
Chorionic gonadotropins Preparation of placental glyco protein. It is extracted from urine of pregnant woman. Hormone.
Framycetin sniphate. Micro org. S. Tradiac. Anti bacterial.
Ery thromycin. Micro org. S.erythema Anti bacterial.
Gas gangrene. Antitoxin. From serum of horse. Passive immunising agent
Gelatin. From animal collagen. For capsule formation.
Gentamycin sulphate. Micro org. micromonospore purpura. Antibacterial.
Grisofuluin Micro org. penicillium grisoflavinum. Anti fungal.
Heparin sidium. Prepn. containing Na salt of complex organic acid present in mammalian tissue. Anticoagulant
Hepatitis ‘B’ vaccine From surface antigen of hepatitis B virus Active immunising agent.
Hypalur onidase Preparation from testes and semen of mammals Depolymerising enzyme, used as spreading factor.
Insulin. Hormone obtained from pancreas of pig or ox. Hypoglycemic agent.
Kanamycin sulphate. Microbes. S. kana mycetium. Antibacterial.
Lincomycin HCL Microbes S. lincoinesis. Anti bacterial.
Measles. Vaccine From measle virus. Active immunising agent.
Novobion sodium. Microbes S. nivans. Anti bacterial.
Nystatin. Microbes nerrci Anti bacterial.
Oxy tetra cyclin. Microbes. S. rimosus. Anti bacterial
Oxy tocin Hormone obtained from post. Lobe of healthy oxen or mammels. Oxy tosis.
(C) Research :
L D 50 test : Lethal dose of a substance administered in single dose that will kill half the test group of animals within specified time.
Draize test. (Eye irritancy test)
Genetic and carcinogenic testing.
Alternatives to these tests are.
(1) cell culture. (2) tissue culture. (3) organ culture. (4) bio Assay technique. (5) ames test. (6) plant models. (7) computer model. (8) Human models.
(D) Suturing materials :
Synthetic absorbable suture material shows less pain, less need of analgesia and less suture dehiscence. They retain strength up to 70% to 100% for 10 to 45 days. and results in minimal tissue reaction.
Cat gut sutures retain strength up to 10 to 30 days.
prolin, nylon & ethibond are synthetic absorbable suture material.
(E) Haemostatic agents : use of surgicel (oxydised regenerated cellulose) is preferred to gel foam.
Dr. B.M. Hegde, Vice chancellor Manipal Academy of Higher education, eminent physician, believes firmly in auditing present expensive technology, some of which have caused more harm than good. He is of the opinion, to redefine the priorities for a person, before subjecting him to expansive harmful medicines and technology.
Percent of sick population :
Emergency medicine 10 % Patient thinks he has disease 10 %
Neoplasias 10 % Minor illness syndromes 35 %
Doctor thinks you have a disease 15 % Iaterogenic diseases 10 %
Chronic degenerative deseases 10 %
Best brains from various systems have to put their heads together, to evolve a new system, Complementary system of Medical Care, with reference to principles of Jain religion, for the betterment of a person, and as a Jain Doctor, our aims and objectives of treatment to our patients should be focused, with a open mindedness and broad long distance vision on following criteria:
Assessing the patients illness with regards to his life style, we must provide effective treatment, which should be cost effective (Excellent, Effective and economic)
Selection of treatment modality, drugs should be non violent or minimum violent.
Prescriptions, where we have choice of selection of a brand fulfilling above mentioned criterias of excellent, effective economic and non violent, we must opt for a company which follows non violence preparations and lastly, company of a National origin.
Political, economic and scientific milieu of our society.
Authors : Dr. Navin S. Shah. M.D.S. E-mail : email@example.com & Dr. Sudhir V. Shah, M.D. D.M. Neurology
Article Courtesy: Ms. Raksha Shah, E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org