FUNCTIONING OF KNOWLEDGE & PERCEPTION
By Mr. Vasant Raj Jain
The existence (manifestation) of Jnan and Darshan is found according to the Kshayopashama (destruction cum subsidence) of Jnanavarana (knowledge-obscuring) and Darshanavarana (perception obscuring) Karmas. When the Kshayopashama is less, the power of Jnana and Darshan is also less and when it is more, the power (of Jnana & Darshan) is also more. Further, due to Kshayopashama the power (of knowing and perceiving) remains as such but in the process of utilisation only one object is known or seen in one unit of time (Samaya) by a Jiva. The name of this activity is Upayoga (active consciousness). There, in one Samaya (in one unit of time) only one Upayoga--eitherJnan-upayoga or Darshan-upayoga is found in action to a Jiva. And even in one Upayoga only one of its kind is found functioning. For example, when Mati-Jnana is functioning, the other kinds of Jnanas are not found functioning. Even in its one kind only one object is visualised. For instance, when it knows touch then it does not know taste, etc. Moreover, in one object also it is found engaged in any one part of it only. For instance, when it knows about hot touch then it does not know about roughness, etc.
Thus, in one moment of time (in one Samaya) a Jiva knows only one knowledge or perceivable object through active knowledge or perception. And it appears to be so only. When upayoga is busy in hearing then even the object situated very near to the eyes is not seen. In the same way other tendency is found.
Moreover, rambling of upayoga is very fast. Due to this in some particular moment it appears that knowing and seeing of many objects takes place simultaneously, but it does not happen simultaneously, rather happens serially. Due to instinctive force their instrumentality (of knowing & seeing) continues. For example, there are two sockets in the crow's eye but the pupil is only one, it moves very swiftly owing to which it serves the purpose of both the sockets. Similarly, for this Jiva, there are several doors but upayoga is one; it moves very swiftly due to which the instrumentality (of knowing) through all doors remains existing.
Question: Since in one moment of time only one object is known or seen, then it should be asserted that the Kshayopashama is only so much, why is it stated to be more? It is further stated that owing to the kshayopashama such power is found existing but the power of omniscience and omniperception is also found in the soul.
Answer: As a person has power of going to many villages but someone stops him and tells visit five villages but visit only one village in one day. Now this person possesses the power of visiting several villages from substance (inherent potentiality) point of view, however, that (power) may get manifested at some other time; but it is not found manifested in the present time, because he can not visit more than five villages at present, and also the power of going to five villages exists in him at present from the manifestation power point of view, because he can go to these five villages but the instantaneous manifestation of that power is of visiting only one village in one day.
Similarly, this Jiva has the power of knowing and seeing all the substances but the karmas obstructed it, and only so much Kshayopashama resulted (manifested) that the objects of touch sense, etc. only can be known or seen but only one object in one Samaya (moment of time) can be known or perceived. The Jiva has the power of knowing and seeing all objects from substance (inherent potentiality) point view which may get manifested at some other time but does not exist manifested at present because he cannot know or see the objects more than the objects of one's own manifested capability of knowing and seeing. And also the power of knowing and seeing the objects as per his capability in the present manifestation form exists from the modification point of view, because he can know and see those objects but the instantaneous manifested capacity is found of knowing or seeing only one object in one Samaya (unit of time).
Question: This is understood, but the kshayopashama (of Karmas) is found (manifested) and on there being contrary instrumental cause of external sense etc. knowing and seeing (of the objects) does not materialise or materialises less or otherwise, so in such instance how can the instrumentality (Nimitta) of Karma alone be established?
Answer: As (in the above example) the man obstructing (the going person) says- 'Out of five villages go to one village in one day but go along with these servants'. There, if those servants act contrarily then going may not be possible or may be possible to some extent or in opposite direction. Similarly, the Kshayopashama of Karmas is of such type that out of so many objects only one object can be known or seen in one 'Samaya', but that too on being the Nimitta (presence) of so many external objects. There, if those external objects modify contrarily then knowing and seeing may not be possible or maybe possible to some extent or otherwise. All this is the peculiarity of Karmas Kshayopashama only. Hence, the Nimitta of Karmas only is to be known, for example, someone is not able to see due to the obstruction by the atoms of darkness but the owl, cat, etc. are able to see even in the presence of obstruction created by them. All this is the peculiarity of Kshayopashama only. Thus, knowing and seeing materialises in accordance with the degrees of Kshayopashama only.
In this way is found the functioning of Kshayopashama Jnana (knowledge) to this Jiva.
The clairvoyance and telepathy knowledges found in the path of liberation are also the (types of) Kshayopashama-Jnana only. (Hence) similarly, these also know and see only one object in one Samaya (moment) and are dependent on other objects. And whatever are their details (specialities) should be known in detail.
Thus, owing to the instrumentality of the rise of Jnanavarana and Darshanavarana Karmas, most of the degrees of Jnana and Darshan are non-existent and owing to their Kshayopashama a few degrees (of Jnana & Darshan) are found existing.