Aprigrahvad & Digamber Jain Saints
Digamber Jain saints take a vow to observe twenty eight special virtues at the time of thair induction into the saintly order and remain vigilent to observe these without slightest deviation through out their life. These special virtues are as follows.
(1) Panch Mahavrat : (i) Ahinsa (ii) Satya (iii) Achaurya (iv) Brahamcharya (v) Aprigrah These are know as five greatest vows.
(2) Five Samities (Carefulness) : (i) Eria Samiti (ii) Bhasha Samiti (iii) Aisina Samiti (iv) Adan Nikshapan Samiti (v) Utsarg Samiti.
(3) Panch Indriya Visay : Control of five senses that i.e (1) Touch (ii) Taste (iii) Smell (iv) vision (v) Hearing.
(4) Shat Aavsyak (Six Essential Duties) : (i)samtr (ii) Vandna (iii) Stuti (iv) Partikraman (v) Pratyakhan (vi) Kayutsrag.
(5) Sapt Visviesh Gun (Extra Virtues) : (i) Achalaktav (ii) Asnan (iii) Adant dhovan iv) Kesh lonch (v) Sleeping on the ground (vi) To take food standing (vii) Take food once daily.
Thus these add upto twenty eight virtues which are prescribed by Jainandra Bhagwan having true and right knowledge (Samyak Gyam) for muni all these virtues are explained in details in a septet chapter- in this book. Here in this chapter Aparigrahvad (non possessions) has been taken in more details as below.
Discarding fourteen types of Antrang Parigrah and ten types of Bahirang parigrah known as principle of known possession (Aprigrah Dharam).
This Aprigrah vrat is the giver of all round peace and enlightenment.
Fourteen Antrang Parigrah (Internal Possessions) :
1. Mithayatav (wrong belief)
2. Krodh (wrath)
3. Maan (Proud)
4. Maya (wickedness)
5. Loish (greed)
6. Hasya (humour)
7. Rati (with af faction)
8. Arti (disaff action)
9. Shok (grief)
10. Bhaya (fear)
11. Gougupsa (hate)
12. Stri ved (feeling of female sex)
13. Purush ved (feeling of male sex)
14. Napunnsak ved (fesling of eunuch)
Ten Bhairang Parigrah (External Possessions) :
(i) Shatra (area, farms, plots etc )
(ii) Vastu (Property that is a building etc.)
(iii) Hirney (Silver)
(iv) Swarn (gold)
(v) Dhan (animals and wealth)
(vi) Dhanya (wheat, gram etc.)
(vii) Dasi (maid servant)
(viii) Das (Servant)
(ix) Kupya (clothes)
(x) Bhanda (intensity etc.)
Aweful Result Posessions : These twenty four types of possessions keep the soul bonded in this universe and cause the trouble of birth and death cycle in the same manner at Grah (crodile) etc. catch holds the man, pulls in deep water and ullimcqtely eats him. It is astonishing that in whole of this three hundred forty three cubic Raju (Many light years) universe there are only ten types of parigrah. while in this small body equal to a measurment of only three and a half hands three are fourtee types of parigrah. Let us consider that when one Planet (Grh) causes much trouble and pain to the may what will happen to those who are chased by twenty four parigrah and how much trouble. pain agony they will have to bear. If one (Grh) crocodile can swallow the man than definitely twenty four Parigrah will swallow the soul without any doubt.
Murcha Parigrah : feeding of love and attachment Of worldly possessions and luxuries is real internal possession. Tirthankar and hewaly inspite of having highly splendid Samosharan (Preaching place for all in the universe which is considfrd to be matchless in this universe are not having any parigrah as they are free from any love, attachment or wish for it. Feeling of possession or ownership is a strange type of fire, as fire increases by adding fuel to it and gets extinguished in absense of fuel but this fire that is feeling of possession in absense of wealth and luxries increases to have these and when these are obtained than this fire become terrible fo addmore.
Wealth is like water and desire is like lotus, when this water increases lotus of desire also increases ahead of it. In case after this increase if water decreases then stem of the lotus of desire does not decrease and this lotus falls in absense of base that as wealth increases desire to have more also increase enormously but if wealth decreases than desire does not decrease and this causes immense mental torture and pain, some time & he even ties due to brain hammeorage or heart failure. Desire is fire and wealth is pure butter ghee to It. If you will go on adding fuel to fire it will go on getting more and more furious. This fire of desires of havihg more money, wealth and luxuries etc. will Calm down as much as less fuel in the shape of above will be added to it and thus it will bring mental peace.
Kanak means dhetura(a poision fruit) and also gold. Now poet says gold is hundred times more intoxicating then dhatura because one gets intoxicated by eatihg dhatura while by simply having gold and money one gets intoxicated or in other words a person who has a deep desire for money becomes haughty and gets used to bad habits like drinking, betting and prostitution etc.
To earn lot of money is a very difficult and troublesome job, for it he goes to dense forest, dives in deep oceans, goes acrobs the seas to unknown countries and places leaving his near and dear ones, He dances and sings at the cammands of his boss, fialters him and humbly serves him. For getting money one commits theif, dacoity, black market and exploitation of others etc. and thus commits great sins but even after getting money there is no peace, he remains uneasy for its safety, hides it and puts lock after lock for its safety.In case some one tries to snatch it then he has to fight for it. In case of bad luck in spite of all this safety measures money is lost. In this way in all the three states that is earning, keeping and loss one suffers mental torture. But this ignorent human being feels pleasure in having this all trouble some money in the same manner as a patient relishes eating oils and butter etc which increases his ailment in place of decreasing it.
Poor feels the pinch of its absense while wealthey is uneasy to get more but only those great saints who have conquered their desires and expectations are happy and peaceful.
One who has made his desires his servant he has made whole of the world his servant, while one who has become servant of his desires, he becomes servant of all.
The pit of desires of each and every being is so vast that if whole of this universe is dropped in it then it will look like a drop in the ocean. Thus while this whole universe is insignificant to satisfy the desires of one then what part of it will be available to infinite number of beings of this universe, therefore to have desire is the greatest blunder.
In a pit if some thing is added it is reduced and gets filled but this pit of desires is quite strange you go on adding to it, it will go on increasing in place of decreasing. While if you go on decreasing your desires it will also go on decreasing, the moment you will completely banish your desires it will get filled. This is the strangeness of this pit of desires. Fulfillment of desires is in their extinction and not in pursuing.
Cause of Nakedness: As explained in chapter Ist,
Twenty Eight Special Virtues And Extra Virtues
Only by living naked and performing kesh lonch one can not become Nirgranth Digamber. Along with this to enhance the purity of his soul he has to observe many other principles also, In these twenty eight ate the special ones and thirty fourty are extra virtues.In short these have described below :-
These twenty eight special virtues have been divided into five Mahavrat (Perfect vows'), five Samities (Carefullness) Five Indriya Vijay (Victory over senses), Shat Avashyak Six essential duties) Seven Vishash Gun (Seven specialites)
Five Mahavart :
(i) Ahinsa Mahavrat : Not to cause slightest mental or bodily pain to any microscopic or macro living creature that is a cellular or higher life including plants, insects, human being, animals, birds etc. with their thoughts, speech and body. To have sympathy on all living ones taking them to be equal to his own soul.
(ii) Satya Mahavrat : Not to speak words which are false, harsh, hurting and against the interest of self and others. To speak sweet, helpful for self and others according to religious sanction.
(iii) Achourya Mahavrat : Neither to take or help others to take or praise others taking the physical belongings of others without having their clear permission by mind speech and body.
(iv) Brahamcharya Mahavrat : Absolutely free from any type of sexual act with any woman, of the world in the three ways that is thoughts, words, physical acts and remain completely engrossed in his own soul.
(v) Aprigrah Mahavrat : To completely leave internal parigrah that is wrath, pride wickedness, greed etc and external parigrah that is each and every type of attachment of physical articles including money etc.
Five Samities :
(vi) Eria Samiti : To walk cautiously seeing the foreground so that no living creature however small it may be killed or hurt.
(vii) Bhasha Samiti : To speak sweet simple, soft and helpful only in essential words according to relegious scriptures.
(viii) Aishna Samiti : Without causing any sort of trouble to others cat simple, pure, hygenic, perfectly vegetarian food only once in day time in twenty four hours to tread the path of religion.
(ix) Aadan Nikshapan Samiti : Carefully liedown or sit down or remove and put down things keeping defence of any creatures in view,
(x) Pratisthapan Samiti : To remain vigilent while making excretions (passing out urine, excreta etc). That no insect is killed or troubled.
Five Indria Vijay :
(xi) Sparshan Inoriya Vijay : To discard sense of joy and sorrow created or felt by touch of the body.
(xii) Rasna Indria Vijay : Not to have liking or disliking for things having different taste like sweet, Sour, salty,spicey etc.
(xiii) Ghran Indrya Vijay : Not to have desire for fragrance or dislike for foul odour.
(xiv) Chakshu Indria Vijay : To leave competely any sense of Joy or sorrow by seeing beautiful or ugly things or scenes
(xv) Karan Indria Vijay : Not to feel pleasure or irritation due to melodious sounds, discordant notes, praise and dbusive Langauge ete.
Six Essentials :
(xvi) Samta : Without having an emotion good or bad to keep equanimity, that is medium state of thougts in all either friend or enemy, praise or insult, comfort or discomfort, gain or loss birth or death, respect or insult etc.
(xvii) Vandana : To worship and sing in praiss of God or one venerable saint.
(xviii) Stuti : To worship and praise collectively for a number of saints or Mahapurshas (Super human being) gods.
(xix) Prati Kraman : To make efforts and repent over his own past mistakes or acts which are not proper or forbidden.
(xx.) Pratyakhyan : To make efforts to save himself from future sins and mistakes.
(xxi) Kayautsarg : To leave the love and care of his own body to perform acts of hardship like Tapasya, fast, exposer to cold heat and rains etc calmly.
Seven Vishesh Gun (Specialities)
(xxii) Achailaktav (Nakedness) : To discard all cloths and coverings to attain simple, natural, emtionless (of shame) etc. child like state.
(xiii) Asnan : Not to bath his body with water, only to have the bath of mantra (spritual words) vow. air and sun rays etc.
(viv) Dant Dhovan : Not to shine his teeth with brush or any powder etc.
(xv) Kesh Lonch : To pull out hairs of head; board and pair of moustaches with hands in two, three or four months once.
(xxvi) Bhoomi Shayan : To sleep for little time on clean that is having no ants or insects etc. earth, stone sleep, mat or dry grass etc. without any aid like pillow. cushion, any cloth or bad etc. for removing fatigue.
(xxvil) Ak Bhukti : They eat once In day time only in twenty four hours simple and hygenic food without any of the thirty two antrai (disturbances) mentioned as below-
If they find hair, leather (dead skin) dead insect or any other creature, meat bone, Nail etc. in their food while eating then they at once leave the food without any ill feeling and go away. If they happen to saw raw meat, dying creature, wine, raging fire etc, then they take it as antrai and leave food. while they are going to have their food and they happen to see corpse, dead animals having all the five senses excreta of some bird falls on their body, if some carnivorous animal, some drunkard or meat eater man, chandal (executioner), or a Lady having mensus touches their body then they return back without taking their food on that day At the time of taking their food if they happen to hear pathatic words or sound of loudly weeping or fighting then they assume it as anrai. Moreover if person offering food to them falls or some utensil falls, either lamp or fire gets extinguished, raw seed (having power of germination) gets into theit stomach. appearance of ascaris or pin or hook worms etc. then they take it also as antrai.
(xxviii) Stith I Bhojan : Saints do not eat their food sitting in any utensil but instead they stand keeping a distance of about II" (tencentimeters) betwaen their feet. without having evil thought, observing perfect silence, without making any indication of yes or no, without having any complex of begging or humbleness they accept their food solid or liquid in their palms only and eat, They always eat less than their hunger.
Thirty Four Extra Virtues (Uttar Gun) : These thirty four extra virtues are classified into six Bahirang Tap (outward). Six antarang Tap (internal), twenty two parishay jai. Thus these total thirty four extra virtues of Muni.
Six Bahirang Tap :
(i) Anshan : To purify the soul, to weaken the pride and evil thoughts and to control the senses voluntarily stop taking completely all type of food and liquid for a certain period.
(ii) Avmodrya : To win laziness, do meditation and study, eat food less than their hunger.
(iii) Vrati Parisankhyan : To think about some condition silently and without telling anybody that it it will happen today then I will accept food otherwise not for example-special type of house or. some definite number of human beings or food or any type of event or thing.
(iv) Ras Tyag : To have control on liking or thoughts of eating particular food of a particular taste and to limit sensuary pride taking a vow not to eat one or two or more type of food belonging to following classes-sweet, salt, oils, Ghee milk and curd. These types are known as six ras.
(v) Aikant Shayyasan : For undisturbed studies, meditation thinking and analysis etc. to live in lonely places where there is no man woman or eunuch.
(vi) Kaya Klaish : To realise self to sit in padamasan (lotus posture) or not to speak for a particular interval of time (Silence) or live near rivers or in mountains and thus bear the bodily discomforts keeping one self normal (equanimus)
Six Antarang Tap :
(vii) Prayashchit : To repent on wrong thoughts and doings.
(viii) Vinay : To behave respectfully towads virtues and virtuous.
(ix) Vaya Vrat : To serve saints without any desire.
(x) Swadhyai : To purify the soul. to remove the darkness of ignorance to check the tendency of iII will to self and others and to creat the tendency of doing good to others study of true religious litrature.
(xi) Vutsarg : To finish attachment with body and other worldly things.
(xii) Dhyan : To stabilise the thoughts in the study of inner self and analysis of six subtances that is-Jiva, Pudgal (matter) Dharam (medium of motion of soul and matter) Adharam (medium of rest for soul and matter), Kai (time) and Akash (space). After getting rid of of all ill instincts.
Twenty Two Parisha Jai (Victories of pinches) :
(xiii) Shudha Jai : To bear hunger keeping normal thoughts.
(xiv) Pipasa Jai : To bear thirst without uneasiness.
(xv) Sheet Jai : To bear coid with equanimity.
(xvi) Ushan Jai : To tolrate heat with equanimity.
(xvii) Dansh Masak Jai : To keep normal if mosquito etc. bite.
(xviii) Nagan Parish Jai : Not to have only pinch of evil thoughts or shame by being completely naked.
(xix) Arati Jai : Even in the face of dissatisfaction not to have dissatisfaction or aversion from the religion.
(xx) Stri Parishy Jai : Not to allow turbulence of' thoughts even by seeing young beautiful ladies.
(xxi) Charya Parishy Jai : To be remor seless while walking on uneven. thorney stonley ground.
(xxii) Nishidha Parishy Jai : To bear the pain calmly which is caused by sitting or standing for long intervals during meditation or tapasya.
(xxiii) Shayya Parishy Jai : To bear pain calmly caused by sleeping on hard ground.
(xxiv) Aakrosh Parishy Jai : To tolerate calmly unparliamantry, fifthly and perceing words use by others.
(xxv) Badh Parishy Jai : To remain calm and quit at the time of murderonr attack with sword or other arms etc. by others.
(xxvi) Yachna Parishy Jai : Not to beg food or medicine even at the death bed
(xxvii) Alabh Parishy Jai : In condition of not getting food for long intervals to consider this loss better than gain.
(xxviii) Rog Parishy Jai : To remain normal and firm while suffering with dreaded and painful discase.
(xxix) Tren Sparsh Jai : Remain callmand normals in his thoughts if he gets pricked with thorn etc.
(xxx) Mal Parishy Jai : To bear the inconvenience quitely if their body gets dusty etc.
(xxxi) Satkar Purskar Parishy Jai : Not to feel inferioritey complex and let his thoughts be disturbed if others do not praise him though he is very learned austear and meditative.
(xxxii) Parggya Parishy Jai : Not to be proud of his intellect.
(xxxiii) Agayan Parishy Jai : Not to be remorseful if he does not acquire much knowledge inspite of his best efforts.
(xxxiv) Adarshan Parishy Jai : Even after tough and prolonged Tapasya (austerity) if he does not attain special knowledge and super natural powers then also he does not loose his faith in the path of Nirvan.
In addition to above mentioned there are so many other attainmenty or virtues in Nirgranth Muni.
Swami Veer Sen Ji has decorated Nirgrenth muni with some very special simili as below-
Nirgranth saint are brave and fearless like lion, powerful like elephant gentle like bullock, Innocent like deer, unaccompnied like wind, dazzling like sun, soker like ocean, immoveable and firm like Maeru Mandir (Maeru Mountain), cold like moon, pure like jewel, calm and forgiver like earth, large hearted like sky. Such great saints are the travellers of highest, ideal state of soul that is Moksh. Thus such idealistic saints are living religion and Tcerth(holy places) personified.
Learned person said : Seeing saints is in itself a pious act (Punya) they are like places of reverence and worship (Teerth) themselves. Result of pilgrimage is obtained in future but company of saints is beneficial immediately.
Ganga river washes sins, moon removes heat, Kalptaru (divine tree giving everything) removes humbleness and poverty but company of saints removes all the three at once.
As every mountain does not contain jewels, fore head of every elephant does not contain pearls, sandal wocd is not found in every forest similarly such idea I saints are not found every where.
Sandal wood Is cold in the universe, moon is colder than sandal wood but saints are colder than sandal wood and moon both. In the same manner at the sacred feet of these Nirgranth saints having all these great virtues, who are beneficiary for self and others, perfect in the knowledge of soul, image of simple nature, adorned with three jewels (Ratan Triya) that is right belief right knowledge and right conduct, I bow and offer my endless thanks.